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Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - International Office

Partneruniversitäten

Auf dieser Seite findest Du eine Übersicht aller Partneruniversitäten der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät. Wir möchten Dir mit der folgenden Liste nützliche Informationen zu Ländern und den Partnerhochschulen geben. Detaillierte Informationen über unsere Partneruniversitäten gibt es auch in unserer

 Moodle Gruppe ERASMUS Outgoings Wiwi

 

Dort findest du auch aktuelle Fact Sheets, in denen unsere Partneruniversitäten alle wichtigen Infos zu Kontaktpersonen, Kurswahl, etc. bereit stellen. Darüberhinaus findest du in der Moodle Gruppe auch Erfahrungsberichte von ehemaligen Wiwi Outgoings - diese enthalten in der Regel nützliche Hinweise und Tipps!

Um sich in die Moodle Gruppe einzutragen, muss man noch nicht zwingend einen HU Mail Account besitzen - du kannst dich auch mit deiner privaten Mail Adresse registrieren.

Die aktuelle Liste der einzelnen Partnerschaftsverträge sind in der folgenden pdf-Datei einsehbar. Dort kannst du sehen, welche Fächer für dich offen sind und wieviele Plätze es gibt:

pdf Partneruniversitäten 2017-18

 

pdf Partneruniversitäten 2016-17

 

  • Alle Informationen zur Möglichkeit eines Austausches außerhalb des Erasmus-Programms findest noch mal gesondert auf der Seite über Fakultätsverträge.
  • Siehe auch die Seite Bewerbung für ausführliche Instruktionen zum Bewerbungsablauf für die Austauschprogramme der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät.

 

Partneruniversitäten


Die Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät hat hat entsprechende Vereinbarungen zur Studierendenmobilität im Rahmen von ERASMUS mit mehr als 50 Partneruniversitäten in über 20 Ländern. Dazu kommen noch über 10 Fakultätsvereinbarungen.

 

partner institutions auf einer größeren Karte anzeigen

 

 

Belgien - Belgium

For such a small country, Belgium has been a major European battleground over the centuries.

Occupied by Germany during the First and Second World Wars, it has experienced an economic boom in the past 50 years to become a model Western European liberal democracy. However, there has also been a growing divide between the mainly Dutch-speaking north and the mainly French-speaking south, as well as concerns about the growth of Islamic extremism among immigrant communities in the capital, Brussels.

Brussels is the headquarters of the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (Nato), making it the polyglot home of an army of international diplomats and civil servants.

  • Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Faculty Economics and Business, Brussels

 

China (Fakultätsvertrag) 

China Map China is the world's most populous country, with a fascinating culture stretching back nearly 4,000 years. Many of the elements that make up the foundation of the modern world originated in China including: paper, gunpowder, credit banking, the compass and paper money.

After stagnating for more than two decades under the rigid authoritarianism of early communist rule under its late leader, Chairman Mao, China now has the world's fastest-growing economy and is undergoing what has been described as a second industrial revolution.

The People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded in 1949 after the Communist Party defeated the previously dominant nationalist Kuomintang in a civil war. The Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan, creating two rival Chinese states - the PRC on the mainland and the Republic of China based on Taiwan.

  • Sun-Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou
  • Peking University, Guanghua School of Management, Peking
  • Peking University, HSBC Business School, Shenzen
  • Xiamen University – The Wang Yanan Institute for studies in Economics, Xiamen
  • Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

 

Dänemark - Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark has, despite its relatively small size, punched above its weight internationally.

Vikings raiding from Denmark and the other Nordic nations changed the course of 9th- and 10th-century European history; in the Middle Ages, the Union of Kalmar united all of Scandinavia under Danish leadership.

In more recent times, Denmark has developed a highly-competitive service-based economy with high employment levels and a generous social security system. The Social Democrats led coalition governments for most of the post-war period until the 1980s, consolidating the country's liberal reputation, although concerns at high taxation levels and tension over immigration have put the centre-right in office for several long periods since then.

  • Aarhus University, Aarhus
  • University of Copenhagen, Kopenhagen
  • Copenhagen Business School (CBS), Kopenhagen

 

England (Vereinigtes Königreich) - United Kindom

The United Kingdom is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It has a long history as a major player in international affairs and fulfils an important role in the EU, UN and Nato.

The twentieth century saw Britain having to redefine its place in the world. At the beginning of the century, it commanded a world-wide empire as the foremost global power.

Two world wars and the end of empire diminished its role, but the UK remains an economic and military power, with considerable political and cultural influence around the world.

  • Warwick University, Coventry
  • University College London (UCL), London
  • University of Exeter Business School, Exeter

 

Estland - Estonia

Estonia is the most northerly of the three Baltic states, and has linguistic ties with Finland. Since regaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia has become one of the most economically successful of the European Union's newer eastern European members.

Ruled at various times during the middle ages by Denmark, the German knights of the Livonian Order, and Sweden, Estonia ended up part of the Russian Empire in the 18th century. It experienced its first period of independence in 1918, following the end of the First World War and the collapse of the Russian Empire.

  • Estonian Business School, Tallinn

 

Finnland - Finland

Finnland

After having lived for decades in the shadow of the Soviet Union, Finland is now well settled in the European Union.

Following its defeat at the hands of the Soviet Union in the Second World War, the country endured strong influence from Moscow during the Cold War, though retaining its sovereignty.

When the Soviet Union collapsed Finland joined the EU and is the only Nordic EU member to use the euro as its national currency.

The country spends heavily on education, training and research - investment which pays dividends by delivering one of the best-qualified workforces in the world.

  • Aalto University School of Business, Helsinki
  • Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki

 

Frankreich - France

FranceFrance is known the world over for its cuisine, fashion, culture and language. It is the most visited tourist destination in the world.

A key player on the global stage and a country at the political heart of Europe, France paid a high price in both economic and human terms during the two world wars.

The years which followed saw protracted conflicts culminating in independence for Algeria and most other French colonies in Africa as well as decolonisation in south-east Asia.

France was one of the founding fathers of European integration as the continent sought to rebuild after the devastation of the Second World War.

  • Grenoble Ecole de Management (Ecole Supérieure de Commerce), Grenoble
  • Montpellier Business School, Montpellier
  • ENS Paris-Saclay (formerly ENS de Cachan)
  • ESCP Europe Business School, Paris
  • Université Paris Dauphine, Paris
  • Reims Management School, Reims
  • Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, Toulouse

Double Degrees (Caution: Excellent mathematical skills are required):

  • École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Economique (ENSAE), Paris
  • École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information (ENSAI), Rennes

 

Georgien - Georgia (Fakultätsvertrag)

Situated at the strategically important crossroads where Europe meets Asia, Georgia has a unique and ancient cultural heritage, and is famed for its traditions of hospitality and cuisine.

Over the centuries, Georgia was the object of rivalry between Persia, Turkey and Russia, before being eventually annexed by Russia in the 19th century. Since emerging from the collapsing Soviet Union as an independent state in 1991, Georgia has again become the arena of conflicting interests, this time between the US and a reviving Russia. Tense relations with Russia have been further exacerbated by Moscow's support for the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

  • International School of Economics (ISET), Tiblisi

 

Island - Iceland

A sparsely-populated North Atlantic island, Iceland is famous for its hot springs, geysers and active volcanoes. Lava fields cover much of the land and hot water is pumped from under the ground to supply much of the country's heating.

Iceland became an independent republic in 1944 and went on to become one of the world's most prosperous economies. However, the collapse of the banking system in 2008 exposed that prosperity as having been built on a dangerously vulnerable economic model.

The affluence enjoyed by Icelanders before 2008 initially rested on the fishing industry, but with the gradual contraction of this sector the Icelandic economy developed into new areas.

  • University of Iceland, Reykjavik

 

Israel (Fakultätsvertrag)

IsraelA densely-populated country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, Israel is the only majority-Jewish state in the world.

It has been locked in conflict with the Palestinians and its Arab neighbours over ownership of land considered holy by Jews, Christians and Muslims since its creation in 1948.

The division of the former British mandate of Palestine and the creation of the state of Israel in the years after the end of World War II was the culmination of the Zionist movement, whose aim was a homeland for Jews scattered all over the world. After the Nazi Holocaust pressure grew for the international recognition of a Jewish state, and in 1948 Israel declared its independence following a UN vote to partition Palestine.

  • Tel Aviv University - Coller School of Management, Tel Aviv

 

Italien - Italy

ItalyTake the art works of Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Tintoretto and Caravaggio, the operas of Verdi and Puccini, the cinema of Federico Fellini, add the architecture of Venice, Florence and Rome and you have just a fraction of Italy's treasures from over the centuries.

While the country is renowned for these and other delights, it is also notorious for its precarious political life and has had several dozen governments since the end of World War II.

The Italian political landscape underwent a seismic shift in the early 1990s when the "mani pulite" ("clean hands") operation exposed corruption at the highest levels of politics and big business. Several former prime ministers were implicated and thousands of businessmen and politicians were investigated.

There were high hopes at the time that the "mani pulite" scandal would give rise to a radical reform of Italian political culture, but these hopes were dashed when the old structures were replaced by a new political landscape dominated by the multi-millionaire businessman Silvio Berlusconi, who himself became increasingly mired in scandals and corruption affairs.

  • Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florenz
  • Università degli Studi di Roma Tre, Rom
  • Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli di Roma (LUISS), Rom
  • Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena
  • Freie Universität Bozen, Bozen
  • Università di Pisa, Pisa

 

Kasachstan - Kazakhstan (Fakultätsvertrag)

A huge country the size of Western Europe, Kazakhstan has vast mineral resources and enormous economic potential.

The varied landscape stretches from the mountainous, heavily populated regions of the east to the sparsely populated, energy-rich lowlands in the west, and from the industrialised north, with its Siberian climate and terrain, through the arid, empty steppes of the centre, to the fertile south.

Ethnically the former Soviet republic is as diverse, with the Kazakhs making up nearly two thirds of the population, ethnic Russians just under a quarter, and smaller minorities the rest. Suppressed under Soviet rule, the main religion, Islam, is undergoing a revival.

Since independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, major investment in the oil sector has brought rapid economic growth, and eased some of the start disparities in wealth of the 1990s.

  • Kazakhstan Institute of Mgmt, Econ & Strategic Research, Almaty

 

Kroatien - Croatia

Croatia's declaration of independence in 1991 was followed by four years of war and the best part of a decade of authoritarian nationalism under President Franjo Tudjman.

By early 2003 it had made enough progress in shaking off the legacy of those years to apply for EU membership, becoming the second former Yugoslav republic after Slovenia to do so.

Following protracted accession talks, Croatia took its place as the 28th member state of the EU on 1 July 2013.

A country of striking natural beauty with a stunning Adriatic coastline, Croatia is again very popular as a tourist destination.

  • University of Rijeka, Rijeka

 

Kuba - Cuba (Summer School)

Cuba

Cuba has survived more than 40 years of US sanctions intended to topple the government of Fidel Castro. It also defied predictions that it would not survive the collapse of its one-time supporter, the Soviet Union. Since the fall of the US-backed dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959 Cuba has been a one-party state led by Mr Castro and - since February 2008 - by his anointed successor, younger brother Raul.

Fidel exercised control over virtually all aspects of Cuban life through the Communist Party and its affiliated mass organisations, the government bureaucracy and the state security apparatus.

Relations with the US showed signs of a thaw following the election of President Barack Obama, who in April 2009 said he wanted a new beginning with Cuba. Russia has also taken steps to revitalise ties with its Soviet-era ally, and in July 2009 signed an agreement to explore Cuba's offshore oil reserves.

 

Lettland - Latvia

lettland Situated in north-eastern Europe with a coastline along the Baltic Sea, Latvia has borders with Estonia, Russia, Belarus and Lithuania. It has linguistic links with Lithuania to the south and historical and religious ties with Estonia to the north.

Not much more than a decade after it declared independence following the collapse of the USSR, Latvia was welcomed as an EU member in May 2004. The move came just weeks after it joined Nato.

For centuries Latvia was primarily an agricultural country, with seafaring, fishing and forestry as other important factors in its economy. Like its Baltic neighbours, in the decade after independence Latvia made a rapid transformation to embrace the free market. More than a quarter of the population is Russian-speaking and the rights of this section of society have been a thorny issue since independence.

  • Baltic International Academie, Riga

 

Niederlande - Netherlands

The Netherlands' name reflects its low-lying topography, with more than a quarter of its total area under sea level. Now a constitutional monarchy, the country began its independent life as a republic in the 16th century, when the foundations were laid for it to become one of the world's foremost maritime trading nations. Although traditionally among the keener advocates of the European Union, Dutch voters echoed those in France by spurning the proposed EU constitution in a 2005 referendum.

The Netherlands has produced many of the world's most famous artists from Rembrandt and Vermeer in the 17th century to Van Gogh in the 19th and Mondrian in the 20th. It attracts visitors from across the globe.

  • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU University), Amsterdam
  • Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (University of Groningen), Groningen
  • Maastricht University, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht
  • Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management, Tilburg
  • Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics, Rotterdam

 

Norwegen - Norway

Norwegen

Europe's northernmost country, the Kingdom of Norway is famed for its mountains and spectacular fjord coastline, as well as its history as a seafaring power.

It also enjoys one of the world's highest standards of living, in large part due to the discovery in the late 1960s of offshore oil and gas. It is the world's number seven oil exporter and has resisted the temptation to splurge its windfall, choosing instead to deposit the surplus wealth into its oil fund - now the world's largest sovereign wealth fund.

What to do with the money is a hot political issue: whether to use more of it to improve infrastructure or keep it for a rainy day and future generations.

Norway plays an active international role. It has mediated between Israel and the Palestinians as well as in the Sri Lankan conflict, and has participated in military action in Afghanistan and Libya. Ex-premier Jens Stoltenberg is Nato's secretary general.

  • University of Bergen, Bergen
  • Norwegian School of Economics (NHH), bergen
  • University of Oslo, Oslo

 

Österreich - Austria

Famous for its spectacular mountain scenery, Austria is no longer the dominant political force it was in Central Europe under the Habsburg dynasty which ruled until the first world war. However, its position at the geographical heart of Europe on the key Danube trade route enhances its strategic importance.

The capital, Vienna, is home to key international organisations, including the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Opec, the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Austria has a very rich cultural heritage. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart occupies a place of his own as composer of some of the best loved European classical music while the works of Franz Schubert enjoy great popularity too. In the world of philosophy and ideas, Sigmund Freud still provokes controversy while Ludwig Wittgenstein was one of the major influences in 20th century thinking. In fine art, the paintings of Gustav Klimt are widely admired.

  • Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien

 

Peru (Fakultätsvertrag)

Peru's rich and varied heritage includes the ancient Incan capital of Cuzco and the lost city of Machu Picchu.

The country boasts spectacular scenery, including Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake. A growing number of visitors are being drawn to its variety of attractions.
The country has been experiencing an economic boom. Foreign investors, attracted by the government and encouraged by favourable conditions, have been keen to get involved in exploiting the country's mineral wealth, sometimes in the face of local resistance.

The country is still trying to come to terms with the trauma of a two-decade conflict - roughly from 1980 to 2000 - between the state and leftist guerrilla groups, the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement and the Shining Path, which still has a following.

  • Universidad del Pacifico, Lima

 

Polen - Poland

polenA nation with a proud cultural heritage, Poland can trace its roots back over 1,000 years. Positioned at the centre of Europe, it has known turbulent and violent times.

There have been periods of independence as well as periods of domination by other countries. Several million people, half of them Jews, died in World War II.

A new era began when Poland became an EU member in May 2004, five years after joining Nato and 15 years after the end of communist rule.

It was the birthplace of the former Soviet bloc's first officially recognised independent mass political movement when strikes at the Gdansk shipyard in August 1980 led to agreement with the authorities on the establishment of the Solidarity trade union.

  • Politechnika Wroclawska (University of Technology), Breslau
  • Universytet Warzawski (University of Warsaw), Warschau

 

Portugal

portugal

Portugal, a country with a rich history of seafaring and discovery, looks out from the Iberian peninsula into the Atlantic Ocean.

When it handed over its last overseas territory, Macau, to Chinese administration in 1999, it brought to an end a long and sometimes turbulent era as a colonial power. The roots of that era stretch back to the 15th century when Portuguese explorers such as Vasco da Gama put to sea in search of a passage to India. By the 16th century these sailors had helped build a huge empire embracing Brazil as well as swathes of Africa and Asia. There are still some 200 million Portuguese speakers around the world today.

For almost half of the 20th century Portugal was a dictatorship in which for decades Antonio de Oliveira Salazar was the key figure. This period was brought to an end in 1974 in a bloodless coup, picturesquely known as the Revolution of the Carnations, which ushered in a new democracy.

  • Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (ISCTE Business School), Lissabon
  • Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lissabon

 

Russland - Russia (Fakultätsvertrag)

Russia - the largest country on earth in terms of surface area - emerged from a decade of post-Soviet economic and political turmoil to reassert itself as a world power.

Income from vast natural resources, above all oil and gas, have helped Russia overcome the economic collapse of 1998. The state-run gas monopoly Gazprom is the world's largest producer and exporter, and supplies a large share of Europe's needs.

Economic strength has allowed Vladimir Putin - Russia's dominant political figure since 2000 - to enhance state control over political institutions and the media - a process supplemented more recently by an emphasis on fierce nationalism and hostility to the West.

  • State University, Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moskau
  • Ural State University, Jekatarinanburg

 

Schweden - Sweden

schweden

Sweden's position as one of the world's most highly developed post-industrial societies looks fundamentally secure.

Unemployment is low and the economy strong. Public-private partnership is at the core of "the Swedish model", which was developed by the Social Democrats, who governed for most of the last 70 years until 2006.

This mixed economy traditionally featured centralised wage negotiations and a heavily tax-subsidised social security network. The Swedes still enjoy an advanced welfare system, and their standard of living and life expectancy are almost second to none.

  • Jönköping International Business School
  • Linköpings Universitet
  • Stockholms Universitet, Department of Economics
  • Uppsala Universitet

 

Schweiz - Switzerland

A landlocked, mountainous country, Switzerland's geographical position in central Europe and studied neutrality have given it the access and political stability to become one of the world's wealthiest countries.

Switzerland has for centuries been a neutral state, which means that it cannot take part in armed conflict unless it is attacked. Its forces can only be used for self-defence and internal security. It joined the United Nations only in 2002. Surrounded by the European Union, it has vacillated between seeking closer engagement with its powerful neighbour and other international organisations, and preferring a more isolationist course.

The people are given a direct say in their own affairs under Switzerland's system of direct democracy, which has no parallel in any other country. They are invited to the polls several times a year to vote in national or regional referendums and people's initiatives.

The government expressed its regrets over the country's behaviour in World War II following a report by an independent panel of historians on Swiss relations with the Nazis. The report found that the authorities had known what lay in store for the Jewish refugees to whom they closed their borders in 1942, and had assisted the economy of Nazi Germany, although not to a degree that prolonged the war.

  • Universität St. Gallen
  • Universität Bern
  • Université de Fribourg
  • Université de Genève
  • Universität Zürich

 

Slowakei - Slovakia

Right at the heart of Europe and with a history intertwined with that of its neighbours, Slovakia has proudly preserved its own language and distinct cultural traditions. It was part of Czechoslovakia until the "velvet divorce" in January 1993.

Having uncoupled itself from its western neighbour, Slovakia at first struggled to prove itself as an independent democracy, but by the time of the twentieth anniversary of the "velvet divorce" in January 2013, it had come to be seen as one of Europe's biggest success stories.

Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the eurozone in 2009. Its forces have taken part in the Nato-led operation in Afghanistan, and in peacekeeping duties in Kosovo.

Slovakia has a significant Romany population which suffers disproportionately high levels of poverty and social deprivation.

  • Comenius University, Bratislava

 

Slowenien - Slovenia

slowenien Slovenia is a small country in Central Europe, but contains within its borders Alpine mountains, thick forests, historic cities and a short Adriatic coastline.

Slovenia was the first former Yugoslav republic to join the European Union, in May 2004 - shortly after joining Nato.

Unlike Croatia or Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia's independence from Yugoslavia was almost bloodless. The country also found the transition from a state economy to the free market easier than most.

Long regarded as one of the best-performing new EU members, Slovenia was dragged into a deep recession by the European financial crisis in 2012.

Slovenia's relations with Croatia have been strained on account of a rumbling dispute over sea and land borders dating back to the break-up of Yugoslavia.

  • Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana

 

Spanien - Spain

Located at the crossroads of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Europe and Africa, Spain's history and culture are made up of a rich mix of diverse elements.

Through exploration and conquest, Spain became a world power in the 16th century, and it maintained a vast overseas empire until the early 19th century.

Spain's modern history is marked by the bitterly fought Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, and the ensuing 36-year dictatorship of General Francisco Franco.

After Franco's death in 1975, Spain made the transition to a democratic state and built a successful economy, with King Juan Carlos as head of state.

The constitution of 1978 enshrines respect for linguistic and cultural diversity within a united Spain. The country is divided into 17 regions which all have their own directly elected authorities.

  • Universidad de Málaga, Malaga
  • Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
  • Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona
  • Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid
  • Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca

 

Südkorea - South Korea (Fakultätsvertrag)

South Korea has developed into one of Asia's most affluent countries since partition in 1948. The Communist North has slipped into totalitarianism and poverty.

The republic was proclaimed in 1948 and received UN-backed support from the US after it was invaded by the North two years later. The Korean War ended in 1953 without a peace agreement, leaving South Korea technically at war for more than fifty years.

The following four decades were marked by authoritarian rule, during which government-sponsored schemes encouraged the growth of family-owned industrial conglomerates, including the Hyundai and Samsung groups. They helped transform South Korea into one of the world's major economies and a leading exporter of cars and electronic goods. The US has tens of thousands of soldiers in the country.

  • Korea University, Department of Economics, Seoul

 

Tschechien - Czech Republic

tschechien Part of Czechoslovakia until the "velvet divorce" in January 1993, the Czech Republic has a robust democratic tradition, a highly-developed economy, and a rich cultural heritage.

It emerged from over 40 years of Communist rule in 1990, and was the first former Eastern Bloc state to acquire the status of a developed economy. It joined the European Union in 2004.

Communist rule had lasted since 1948, when the restored pre-war democratic system was overthrown in a Soviet-backed coup. The "Prague Spring" of 1968, when Communist leader Alexander Dubcek tried to bring in liberal reforms, was crushed by Warsaw Pact tanks.

In 1989, as the curtain was coming down on communism in the Kremlin, the dissident playwright Vaclav Havel emerged as the figurehead of the country's "velvet revolution" and became the first president of post-communist Czechoslovakia.

  • Charles University (Faculty of Social Sciences & Faculty of Mathematics/Physics), Prag

 

Türkei - Turkey

turkei Once the centre of the Ottoman Empire, the modern secular republic was established in the 1920s by nationalist leader Kemal Ataturk.

Straddling the continents of Europe and Asia, Turkey's strategically important location has given it major influence in the region - and control over the entrance to the Black Sea.

Progress towards democracy and a market economy was halting after Ataturk's death in 1938, and the army - seeing itself as guarantor of the constitution - repeatedly ousted governments seen as challenging secular values.

Joining the European Union has been a longstanding ambition. Membership talks were launched in 2005, but progress has been slow, as several EU states have serious misgivings about Turkish EU membership.

Kurds make up about a fifth of the population. Kurdish separatists who accuse the Turkish state of seeking to destroy their cultural identity have been waging a guerrilla war since the 1980s.

  • Bogazici University, Istanbul

 

Ungarn - Hungary

ungarn Hungary traces its history back to the Magyars, an alliance of semi-nomadic tribes from southern Russia and the Black Sea coast that arrived in the region in the ninth century.

After centuries as a powerful medieval kingdom, Hungary was part of the Ottoman and then Habsburg empires from the 16th century onwards, emerging as an independent country again after World War I.

A landlocked country, Hungary is home to Lake Balaton, the largest in central Europe, and to a large number of spa towns and hot springs.

It has especially rich traditions in folk and classical music and has been the birthplace of many outstanding performers and composers, including Franz Liszt, Bela Bartok and Zoltan Kodaly.

  • Andrássy Gyula University, Budapest

 

 

(Alle Länderbeschreibungen sind Auszüge aus den BBC World News Country Profiles vom 28.01.2011)